Task:Many people are afraid to leave their homes because of their fear of crimes. Some people believe that more actions should be taken to prevent crime, but others feel that little can be done. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
With a rapid increase of crime, more citizens are scared of aggressive acts all over the world. As to whether more measures can be taken to stop crime, there is an endless debate. From my personal view, although more actions cannot fully guarantee the security of the whole society, it is not the reason for which people can surrender to violence.
Clearly, actions such as enacting more strict laws and legislation can effectively curb the frequency of crime. Fearing punishment is usually the mature of humans, so when they are informed of the consequence of committing crimes, they are more prone to stop doing anti-social acts. In addition, providing more education contributes to raise people’s safety awareness and consequently prevents crime. As the Internet prevails information about laws and legislation are more achievable, and thus there is a possibility that people are given more opportunities to learn how to distinguish right from wrong.
However, feasible measures are still not a panacea to the establishment of a completely safe society. If governments fail to guarantee a basic living standard for their citizens, crime rate will hardly be controlled. It is widely believed that a decent job and sufficient disposable income can reduce the possibility of committing socially unacceptable behaviour. The insecurity of society can also be attributed to the fact that it is less possible for governments to eradicate all factors leading to crime. Illegal drugs and alcohol are more accessible than before. People may have to commit crimes in order to get these items.
To conclude, reasonable actions including making severe policies and offering educations are of great help to control criminal events. However, they may still not be able to ensure a secure living environment for people if fundamental needs of materials cannot be fulfilled.
Some think most crime is the result of circumstances e.g. poverty and other social problems. Others believe that most crime is caused by people who are bad by nature. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
背景：犯罪会带来毁灭性影响，危害社会的秩序和安定。(Crime, with wide-ranging and devastating effect, undermines the order and stability of the social security. )
改写题目：然而，罪犯所处的外部环境抑或罪犯本性导致犯罪行为是让备受争议的一个话题。( However, there are conflicting views on whether crime is determined by the circumstance or the evil nature of criminals. )但不得不承认的是，外部环境与本性跟犯罪之间的因果关系并非很明确(the link of cause and effect between circumstance as well as nature and crime is unclear)。
支持外部因素是主导因素的人们认为(people in favor of the circumstance argue that )外部因素例如贫穷或者社会问题会给人们的行为带来深远的影响(far-reaching influence)。专家对于外部原因导致犯罪持有不同的观点(experts hold different opinions about the circumstances leading people to commit acts of violence and crime)。研究表明愤怒、绝望以及需要钱来解决食物、避难和其他必需品等情况都有可能导致犯罪行为(Research has shown that anger, desperation, and the need of money for food, shelter, and other necessities may all contribute to criminal behavior)。在一些情况下，外部原因例如极度贫困、饥荒以及贫富差距过大的社会问题的确是犯罪诱因(in some cases, external factors such as extreme privation, famine and the split between the rich and the poor undoubtedly motivate potential criminals to commit crimes)。例如，穷人为了谋生去贩毒(to obtain money some people commit the crime of selling illegal drugs)或者社会的不公平滋生人们怨恨情绪从而报复社会( the social inequity irritates resentment and leads to revenge on the society)。
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然而，另一些人则强调本性在促使人犯罪这方面的重要性大于外部环境。人们考察人类心理和头脑发育的方式很大程度上受到基因科学的影响(Today the way we consider human psychology and mental development is heavily influenced by the genetic sciences)。很多权威报道都已证明早起儿童阶段孩子的行为深受其性格的影响(Numerous reports have proven that children’s behavior is heavily affected by their nature)。易怒的孩子往往控制怒气的能力较差，往往也具有犯罪倾向(Children who are aggressive and violent are likely to have poor anger management, resulting in their criminal tendency)。若自控能力较差 (poor self-discipline) ，当他们长大成人，即使接受过高等教育，也有可能因为犯罪心理而做出反社会行为 (anti-social behavior)。
Conclusion：外部因素或本性中的哪一个是引起犯罪的最主要原因(either circumstance or nature is the major influence on crime)，因为他们都拥有很大的影响力。外部因素与犯罪本性往往是相互影响的 ( are constantly interacting )，正是在这种相互作用下，犯罪的本性才得以形成，外部因素才得以发挥影响 (It is the interaction of the two that shapes a criminal’s nature and fulfills the influence of circumstance) 。
The rise in the crime rate in recent years has stimulated public to rethink the cause of criminality. Some people take the position that social environment and wealth may be the two influential factors while many other people maintain that someone is bound to be a criminal. personally, I side with the former position but go against the other one, meanwhile, whether to commit a crime is highly depend on personal choices,
Circumstance is a parameter of importance which will considerably affect crime rate. Very few people will commit a crime in an environment- friendly country with a sound welfare system. For example, every individual in Switzerland owns a gun but the crime rate is extremely low, this is mainly because Switzerland is a harmonious and wealthy country. Besides, it is a fact that crime rate will change along with social circumstance. For instance, during the American Great Depression, there is an obvious increase in theft and robbery. When business is depressed, many unemployed people will choose to offend for survival.
The other view, some people are born criminals, seemingly does not hold water. There is no doubt that some criminals have genetic character flaws. However, it not only means people with criminal genes tend to but will not always do a crime. Their potential anti-social behavior is avoidable if they are given enough care and attention.
My opinion about the issue is that criminality is a personal behavior. Some well-educated people are going to be hackers to conduct Internet economic crime in some developed countries like America. They are not poor or naturally offensive. In fact, they just want to show their ability and high intelligence. By comparison, people who live in a country with social unrest will not necessarily commit a crime. Instead, most people used to work hard and enjoy their life.
To summarize, nobody is a criminal by nature. Social environment is a significant but not determining factor to crime. Criminals rely on personal behavior to a high degree.
convicts 名词，罪犯，囚徒(前段时间很红的一套书《囚徒健身》，“Convict Conditioning”)。
suspect (criminal suspect)名词，犯罪嫌疑人。其实，在法庭最终宣判之前，我们口中的罪犯多数情况下应该用这个词表达，更为严谨。
juvenile criminals 名词，青少年罪犯。
minor criminals 名词，未成年罪犯。
juvenile delinquent / juvenile offender 名词，少年犯，或行为不端的青少年
commit a crime (commit crimes) 动宾，犯罪
violate the law / break the law 动宾，犯罪，违法
offend against the law 动宾，违法
violent crimes / non-violent crimes 形容词+名词，暴力犯罪/非暴力犯罪
delinquent behaviors / illegal acts / lawless behaviors形容词+名词，不法的行为
juvenile delinquency 名词，特指青少年的不法行为
illegality 名词，泛指所有违法行为。此外，immorality 名词，指的是不道德的行为，其实近似于违法行为，但是略有区别。同理，副词illegally和immorally也是类似的区别
wrongdoing / misconduct / delinquency 名词，都是指的是行为不端
There is no denying that everyone should be punished due to his/her illegality, no matter how old he/she is. Notwithstanding, this does not imply that juvenile culprits should be treated as equally as adult prisoners. Juvenile detentions ought to be the place for those minor offenders instead of common jails, and besides juvenile suspects should be on trial in juvenile court where their right can be protected much better.
Juvenile convicts with violent crimes should be detained in juvenile detentions as they might be potential threats to our society, and on the other hand minor culprits with non-violent crimes can be punished with more flexibility such as being forced to do social work.
PS: Juvenile detentions 名词，少管所
juvenile court 名词，未成年人法庭
Crime rate / incident of crime
Unbelievably high juvenile crime rate is plaguing many countries all over the world, and how to reduce it has become prime task for those governments for a long time.
Main function of prisons is not only punishing culprits with locking them up but also rehabilitating them as everyone no matter what he/she has done deserves a second chance. 监狱的功能不仅是限制犯人的自由，还要给这些犯人提供一个改过自新的机会。
Lack of moral education 名词性，缺少德育教育(lack一词在实际写作中是考生们常犯错误的地方，请看后面的注解。)
Inappropriate parenting 名词性，不恰当的家庭教育
Being exposed to misleading information from media 动名词性质，暴露于媒体的诱导性信息
Lack of ability of telling right from wrong 名词性，缺少辨别是非的能力
Blindly imitate what they often see or read in media 动宾结构，盲目模仿在媒体中看到的或者听到的事物
首先，可以是及物动词。例如：With stress from exams, students lack enthusiasm on learning any kind of art.
其次，名词，多用于词组 be lack of / be lack in = be short of 例如：Generally speaking, high crime rate, to a great extent, can be attributed to lack of law enforcement capacity of police.
再次，lacking 形容词，常用词组 be lacking of / be lacking in 例如： Fresh graduates are usually lacking in working experience that is required badly on majority of job positions.